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Education in Hungary 1996

2009. június 17.


  • Preface
    This book is a part and result of the work that has been carried out by a researchers' workshop at the Research Centre of the National Institute of Public Education, Budapest. The workshop involving inside and outside advisors and authors biannually produces a `Report on Hungarian Public Education'...
  • 1. The country and the people
    Hungary is located in East-Central Europe. Its neighbours are Austria, Croatia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Two-thirds of its territory are plain, not higher than 200 metres. Ninety per cent of its water resources come from outside the country, the two biggest rivers being the Danube and the Tisza...
  • 2. Social and economic environment of education
    Hungary has an ageing society. Populous age groups that were born after World War II, and low birth rates have made the ratio between the population of working age and the young population very high...
  • 3. Education policy in the transition period
    After 1989 the first measures related to education served the purpose of reinstating the freedom of learning, the freedom of conscience and the freedom of religion. The establishment of non-state public education institutions was authorised by the 1990 Amendment to the 1985 Act on Education...
  • 4. The Hungarian education system
    The regular public education system in Hungary is composed of the general (or basic) school (általános iskola), the general secondary school (gimnázium), the vocational secondary school (szakközépiskola) and the vocational school (szakmunkásképző iskola)...
  • 5. Student progression and structural problems
    In the past few years, the Hungarian school education system has undergone dramatic changes due to the drastic transformation of the wider political, social and economic environment. The quick transformation of the labour market and the growing demand for qualified labour, the high rate of unemployment and especially the drop-out waves of young people from the labour market have created a (growing) need to restructure school education...
  • 6. Resources
    Teachers are challenged by a continuous decrease in the number of students. In Hungary, the proportion of teachers and other school employees within the total work force is high by comparison to the OECD countries...
  • 7. The system of financing and administration
    Education is financed predominantly from public resources. However, enterprises and other legal entities can also take part in financing. The most important sources of public financing are the state budget and the municipalities' own resources...
  • 8. Changes in the curricula
    Up until 1993, a national standard curriculum (syllabus) was in force for basic and secondary education. The application of individual `forms' was first authorised by the Education Act of 1985...
  • 9. Educational achievements
    The standard of achievement in Hungarian public schools was last assessed in 1995 by the Evaluation Centre of the National Institute of Public Education. This kind of assessment was first made in 1986, second in 1991, and third in 1993...
  • 10. Education of students with special needs
    Some of the students who are disabled or/and disadvantaged need special treatment. A group of them consists of the mentally and/or physically disabled. According to experts, students with special educational needs add up to 10-20% of the total number of students, but only the needs of 2-3% of them result from their health condition...
  • 11. Education and employment
    The way from school to work is often rough. Some surveys show that qualified school-leavers consider the past more favourable than the future. The less qualified are even more pessimistic about the future...
  • 12. Adult education
    Adult education is done both in and out of school. In schools, one form of adult education is the regular part-time education...
  • 13. Public opinion on education
    In 1990 and 1995, surveys were made on public opinion about education by the National Institute of Public Education, based on a representative sample of 1,000 people. According to the poll, people are more or less satisfied with the Hungarian school system...
  • 14. Summary
    The education system in Hungary is in transition and is challenged by rapid changes in the economy, demographic phenomena and the ideals of society. Signs of both improvement, adjustment and deterioration can be seen...
  • Appendix
  • Figures and tables

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